Monday, May 23, 2011

Village Chicken (Ayam Kampung)

GUIDELINE IN REARING VILLAGE CHICKEN (BACKYARD)

INTRODUCTION
Rearing of village chicken activities have been started since our great great grandparent's time . The first generation of the chicken with the scientific name of Gallus domesticus was from the generation of Gallus gallus . The second generation of village chicken which was the cross of first generation of village chicken with the Canton village chicken were borne when the Chinese  Trader came in our country. The third generation of village chicken were from the cross of a few breed from foreign country which were brought by European colonial with the second generation.

No proper system of crossing created a few kinds of village chicken that we can see until today. It is difficult to classify the types of village chicken physically. The obvious differences in size that made the village chicken unique. Therefore, there are a few names of village chicken that are found here for example Ayam Botak, Ayam Bulu Balik, Ayam Selasih, Ayam Janggut, Ayam Laga atau Sabung, Ayam Togel, ayam Katik atau Ayam Jepun The names were given according to the location and dialect of the place.


THE AIM OF REARING VILLAGE CHICKEN
To encourage small scale farmers in rearing village chicken so that the activity of importation of poultry feed by our country can be minimised and also to increase the production of local feed.The others are:
  • Egg and meat for the family
  • Hatchable egg for breeding
  • If excess, can be sold in order to increase the family income.
VILLAGE CHICKEN SPECIALITIES
  • Can be breed throughout the year
  • Free rearing during the day
  • Can give left over food ad lib
  • The hen can hatch the egg by its own.
  • The hen can take care of the chicks from cold weather and enemies.
HOUSING SYSTEM
Barn is needed to protect the chicken from bad weather and enemies. The housing system that can be used are
" Raised Floor System " or " Ground Floor System "
One (1) bird needs 1 square foot. If  20 birds, the areas needed are 20 square feet. The dimension of the coop is 4 feet  x 5 feet..
  • Use 'nipah' or zink
  • Use hutan or  sayung wood, bamboo , chain-link wire
  • Use cheap feed trough and drinker.
POULTRY FEED
There are two (2) types of feed:-
1. Commercial Feed
  • Layer Starter Mash
  • Layer Grower Mash/Pellet
  • Layer Finisher Mash/Pellet
 2. Mixed Feed or Left Over Food
  • Left over rice, coconut dregs, coconut's scraping
  • Rice bran, grounded rice, paddy, tapioca/sweet potatoes
  • Fish and others
 MANAGEMENT
Management of Chick (Day Old - 4 weeks)
  • Vaccinate the chicks 
  • Give quality feed and sufficient amount of drink
  • Provide enough light to supply warmness until the age of  2 weeks
Growing Stage until Laying Stage (4 weeks - 22 weeks)
  • Vaccinate the chicks
  • Free rearing during the day
  • Mixed feed or left over food can also be used
  • Prepare a layer nest
  • Avoid from disturbing the hen which are about to groan
BREEDING
  • Natural breeding Nature
  • 1 cock : 10 hens
  • Reared in the coop which consist of layer nest
  • The place should be quiet, dry and free from disturbance
  • Usually it can hatch until 15 eggs during the period 21 days.
CONTROLLING AND PREVENTION OF DISEASES
Chicken diseases can be due to various reason :-
  • Inheritage
  • Feed
  • Management
  • Surrounding
  • Infection

  • The barn should always be clean
  • The chicks should be free from diseases
  • Avoid from different kind of livestock
  • Visitors should be controlled
  • Prevention is bettet than cure.
  • All chickens should be vaccinated 
  • Dead chicken should be buried or burnt to avoid infection of diseases.

  • Day Old - Ranikhet "F" (Usually it was done in the hatchery)
  • Age 3 - 4 weeks - Fowl Pox and Ranikhet "F"
  • Age 6 - 8 weeks - Ranikhet " S "

  • Less appetite
  • Inactive
  • Pale, sneezing, nasal discharge
  • Swollen face 
  • Diarrhoea or bloody diarrhoea
  • Nervous symptoms for example weak of the wing, leg, head twisted and others.

  • New Castle Disease
  • Gumboro Disease(IBD)
  • Fowl Pox
  • Salmonellosis
  • Pasteurellosis
  • Others

TYPES OF CHICKEN DISEASES

General Symptoms of Chicken Diseases

The Diseases Prevention Programme

Steps In Prevention of Diseases

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