Monday, May 23, 2011

Broiler Chicken (Ayam Pedaging)

GUIDELINE TO A GOOD BROILER CHICKEN REARING PRACTICE

INTRODUCTION

1. MANAGEMENT
  1. Workers' health
    • Ensure all workers have good health status. Arrange health examination programme on a periodical basis.
  2. Duties of workers
    • Prepare a duty list for each and every worker
    • Each and every farm worker should be clear about their duty and responsibility
    • Supervise, identify weaknesses and take appropriate action for improvement
  3. Training
    • Prepare and carry out training programme for workers from time to time

2. DEVELOPMENT OF AFARM AND FACILITIES
  1. Location
    • Location site for the farm should not be within area/region under structural planning and development of district or nearby to areas that have high possibility to be developed for public needs
    • Complete and good facilities, (Road accessibility, drainage system, electricity supply and others)
    • Good ventilation, not less than 0.5 kilometer distance from nearest poultry farm
    • At least 0.20 kilometer from developed areas like municipality, industrial, tourist attractions, public places and facilities.
    • Not nearby lakes, ponds and others that are always stopped at by migratory birds
  2. Pens
    • Pens should be built in areas separated from non-productive areas and fenced up to separate the two
    • Not in close proximity with roads frequently used for transportation of chickens
    • Design, size, construction and materials used permit:
      • Optimum ventilation inside pens, comfortable and does not affect growth and health of chickens, as well as comfort and health of workers
      • Effective disinfection work 
    • Ventilation :
      • Temperature inside pens below 30°C (optimum 22-26°C). Humidity rate less than 70 %
      • Buildings or trees nearby pens does not obstruct air circulation
    • Design :
OPEN HOUSE SYSTEMCLOSE HOUSE SYSTEM
Widthnot more than 10 meternot more than 12 meter
Lengthdepending on neednot more than 150 meter
Wall to roof heightat least 2.7 meter
-
Floor to roof heightat least 3.6 meter
4 meter
Floor to ceiling height
-
2.1 - 3.0 meter
Ground to floor height(manual waste collection) : 1.95 meter(manual waste collection) : 1.95 meter
Length of roof sideat least 0.9-1.2 meter
same
Roof gradientat least 1-20 degree
same

  • Length axis of pens should be in east-west direction to reduce effect of direct  sunlight on chickens
  • Distance between pens at least the same as width of pens
  • Design is such that chickens are not exposed to injury
  • Enough exit doors for safety of workers and birds during emergency. For close house system, should install alarm signal
  1. Plan of Farm
    • Prepare a structural plan of farm showing main accessible routes to farm, development of surrounding areas like villages, towns and source of water supply nearby.
    • showing location of pens and other farm facilities

3. FEED
  1. Feed
    • Supply from feed mills that observe good manufacturing practice (GMP) or those recognized as its equivalent by the Department of Veterinary Services
    • Store in a place with good ventilation so as not to allow its quality to spoil, growth of fungus and breeding of pests
    • Store in clean, rat and bird proof place.
    • Do not keep poison materials in feed store.
    • Do not keep feed too long.  For stores with cement or ground flooring, feed should be kept on a base height not less than 15sm.
    • Monitor quality of feed and cleanliness from time to time
  2. Water
    • Use water from supply that is clean or treated with chlorine and other  sanitizers approved by the Government
    • Avoid contamination. Use covered drinkers that can be easily washed
    • Use drinkers that will not easily rust and not made from materials that can lead to poisoning
    • Monitor quality (pH, chemicals, bacteria, metal, odour, colour) from time to time
Contents of good drinking water
 
pH6.5 - 8.0
Total soluble solids< 550 ppm
Chlorides< 250 ppm
Iron< 0.3 ppm
Sulphate< 250 ppm
Nitrates< 10 ppm
Nitrites< 1 ppm
Chlorine< 0.05 ppm
Oxygen7 - 14

4. LIVESTOCK
  • Chicks
    • Obtain chicks from breeder farms or hatcheries accredited by the Department of Veterinary Services or which observe management procedures acknowledged equivalent to accreditation prerequisites
    • Check quality upon arrival.
    • Should be from same flock or same age
    • Chicks from different sources are not to be reared as one flock 

5. MANAGEMENT OF LIVESTOCK AND EQUIPMENTS
  1. Management Guide
    • Prepare a farm management guide that includes management of livestock, feeds and water, pens, vaccination, use and maintenance of equipments, animal health and others
    • Put a brief guide on management in each and every pen for workers' easy reference
  2. Quality Control
    • Practice daily management, use and maintenance of facilities as well as equipments that will ascertain growth and good quality chicks
    • That will ensure farming does not cause :
      • pollution and interference to surroundings
      • spread of disease
    • Prepare a quality assurance programme
  3. Records
    • Farm records should be complete (source of chicks, feeds, death, culling, treatment, vaccination and others).  Records should be kept well and updated from time to time.
  4. Monitoring performance
    • Farm productivity norm indicators as a management guide.
    • Evaluate management competence continuously

6. HEALTH
  1. Health Program
    • Prepare a written document on health programme for the farm and carry it out properly
    • Planning and carrying out of programme supervised closely by a recognized veterinary consultant 
    • Assessed and updated from time to time
  2. Disease Control
    • Monitor disease status in farm on a schedule basis.  Keep complete, orderly and updated records of disease monitoring
    • Ascertain farm is free from Newcastle disease, zoonotic diseases (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci and diseases carried through feeds (Salmonellosis, E.coli 157, Campylobacter, Lysteria),
    • Take immediate action to control its spread when a disease occurs in the farm
  3. Bio-security
    • Prepare a written document on bio-security measures and carry it out properly
    • Provide full and complete facilities for bio-security 
      • Entire boundary of farm to be fenced up at least with 'chain link' and maintained well
      • Have security guard at entrance to farm
      • Facilities for disinfection (roofed dip for tyres of vehicles and spray, foot bath, bathroom/mist spray).  Buildings/structures constructed must ensure disinfection work can be carried out effectively.
      • Facilities that fulfill bio-security requirements for visitors who wish to enter production areas
    • Guide in carrying out bio-security rules and regulations
      • Only one passage way in and out of production areas used
      • Control system for movement of workers, visitors, vehicles, equipments and goods including baskets, chicks and feed in and out of production areas and between pens to make certain bio-security protocol stipulated is followed
      • Close house system where air sucked out from one house does not direct straight to next house
    • Bio-security rules and regulations put up in strategic places in the farm for attention of workers
    • Effectiveness of bio-security protocol monitored and evaluated from time to time and make improvements where necessary
  4. Drug, Poison and Chemicals
    • Usage, handling and storage according to directions from manufacturers. Dosage, expiry date and storage place followed.
    • Only keep quantity deemed enough for use within certain period of time before its expiry date
    • Only use those endorsed by the Government
  5. Vaccine and Vaccination Programme
    AgeType of VaccineMethod
    1 dayND + IBIntranasal
    7 daysND + IBIntranasal
    14 daysIBDOral
    21 daysND + IBOral
    • Prepare a written document on vaccination programme and carry it out properly
    • Use appropriate vaccine
    • Vaccines kept, handled and used according to directions from manufacturers
    • Do not use balance of vaccines already opened
    • Use only vaccines approved by the Government 
    • Monitor effectiveness of vaccination done.
  6. Disinfection
    • Pens disinfected thoroughly after every production cycle and left empty for a suitable period of time (can stop breeding cycle of disease carrier) before a new flock is brought in
    • All farm equipments disinfected thoroughly after use and kept in a clean and dry place
    • Monitor effectiveness of disinfection work carried out

7. SANITATION
  1. Cleanliness
    • Always keep farm premises and surroundings clean
    • Maintenance of growth and grasses in farm
    • Maintenance of drainage system
  2. Disposal of Farm Waste
    • Dispose of dead chickens, pen litter and rubbish without delay. Practice proper disposal system: bury in holes with suitable depth, cover, burn in enclosed places and compose fertilizers out of these waste materials
    • Dead chickens collected and handled properly to avoid possibility of spread of disease
    • Ensure method of disposal does not pollute surroundings and disrupt public tranquility.
    • Special place for disposal far away from pens and source of water supply

8. PESTS CONTROL
  1. Control Protocol
    • Prepare a written document on control and carry it out properly. Evaluate effectiveness of protocol from time to time and improve if necessary
  2. Construction of Pens and Store
    • Bird and rat proof
    • Materials used, size and assembling to ensure birds cannot enter pens.  Periodical checks to make sure always in good condition
    • Make sure there's no place in the farm that will attract rats and birds to make their nests
  3. Trees and Growth
    • Trees that attracts birds to farm are not encouraged to be planted surrounding pens.  Trees nearby should have branches well maintained
    • Grass and growth within 30 meter distance from pens maintained well and not be more than 15 centimeter to avoid becoming a nesting place or refuge for rats and birds. No grass and growth within at least 0.9m distance surrounding pens
  4. Control of Rats
    • Monitor infestation of rats from time to time and keep complete records
    • Take steps to ensure rat index is not more than 10
    • Take control measures if index is higher than this number

9. POLLUTION CONTROL
  1. Files
    • Take measures so that fly infestation in the farm is at a minimum level. Draw up a fly control program and carry it out properly
    • Monitor fly infestation at all stages of rearing periodically and keep complete records of fly index (use Scuder fly grill); must not be more than 10.  Take control measures if index is higher than this number
  2. Smell
    • Take measures so that smell from farm does not disrupt tranquility of surroundings at any time
    • Take appropriate action on anything that may be a source of bad smell in farm and surroundings without delay
  3. Dust
    • Ensure air sucked out from close house system does not pollute air and disrupt surrounding areas
  4. Noise
    • Noise from farm activities and equipments used does not bother public in surroundings

10.WELFARE OF BIRDS AND WORKERS
  1. Livestock Management
    • Chickens are free from stress, injury and discomfort on arrival at farm and whole period of rearing, catching and transportation.
      • Chickens get adequate water and nutritive feed
      • Conform to stage of growth at all times
      • Adequate shelter and protection from weather that can be detrimental to health
      • Suitable temperature according to stage of growth
      • Each chicken gets floor space in accordance with stage of growth
      • Each chicken gets water ad feeding space and at a height in accordance with  stage of growth
      • Catch chickens in a way which will not cause injury
      • Transport using vehicles with good ventilation system
      • Prepare a contingency plan just in case there's any breakdown in transportation
  2. Ventilation
    • Monitor level of ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and oxygen in closed house system from time to time to ensure it does not affect health of chickens and workers.  Gas levels must be as follows:
      Ammonia below 20 ppm
      Carbon monoxidebelow 40 ppm
      Carbon dioxidebelow 0.3%
      Oxygenabove 16%
      Hydrogen sulfide below 5 ppm
  3. Facilities for Workers
    • Housing quarters, resting place for food and refreshments provided at a distance at least 15 meters from pens
    • Toilets in housing areas and farm
    • Clothing and safety measures for workers in high risk or accident-prone areas

The current market trend of chicken, irrespective whether international or local, is getting more and more competitive.  Price, quality and cleanliness of products are among the main factors contributing towards a guaranteed market.  Public and consumer evaluation about food safety, nature quality, tranquility and animal welfare is also changing. The producer must be sensitive to changes in needs of public and market trend.  Hence, methods of farm management should also change. A farm must be managed more competently in order to become more productive,  competitive, farm activities environment friendly and products suitable for consumer needs.  Animal and workers' welfare needs also must be given due attention.  Confidence of public and consumers towards poultry farms need to be established, and with this will assure  continuous production and investment returns.
This paper is prepared as a guide for broiler chicken industrialists to observe good farming practice to upgrade their farm towards better quality, more productive, highly competitive and environment friendly

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